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What is a Project and What is it For ?
A project is a planned set of interrelated tasks that will be executed over a fixed period and within certain costs and other limitations.
Projects are “defined” in specific and actionable terms designed to make implementation possible and facilitate informed actions and decision making.
Characteristics of a Project
It has seven main characteristics. These seven are:
- A single definable purpose, final product or result. This is usually specified in terms of cost, schedule and performance requirements.
- Each project is unique. It requires doing something different, something that was not done before.
- Even in what are often called “routine” projects such as housing construction, variables such as land, access, zoning laws, the labor market, public services and local public services make each project different .
- A project is a one-time activity, which will never be repeated in exactly the same way.
- Projects are temporary activities. A project is an ad hoc organization of personnel, material, equipment and facilities that come together to achieve a goal. This objective is within a specific time frame.
- Once the objective is achieved, the organization created for it is dissolved or sometimes reconstituted to start working on a new objective (project).
- Projects that cross organizational lines. Projects always go through regular organizational lines and structures within a company.
- They do it because the project needs to take advantage of the skills and talents of multiple professions and departments within the company and, sometimes, even other organizations.
- The complexity of advanced technology often leads to additional difficulties of the project, as they create interdependencies of tasks that can introduce new and unique problems.
- The projects imply ignorance. Because a project differs from what was done before, it also implies ignorance.
- And, often, a project also encompasses new technologies and, for the organization / company that carries out the project, they bring into play significant elements of uncertainty and risk.
- The organization generally has something at stake when undertaking a project. The unique “activity” of the project may require special scrutiny or effort because failure would jeopardize the organization / company or its objectives.
- A project is the process of working to achieve a goal. During the process, the projects go through several different phases, which are formed and are called the project life cycle. Tasks, people, organizations and other resources will change as the project moves from one phase to the next.
- The organizational structure and expenditure on resources are constructed with each subsequent phase; peak; and then declines when the project is nearing completion.
Parts of a Project
The objections part of the plan sets out the specific objectives and any delivery of the project.
If the hardware updates for the use of the software represent the general objective, the specific objective could be read as the installation of new processors and graphics cards to use the next-generation 3D model rendering software.
The resource element of the plan includes material, financial and human resources. You need to establish what physical products and physical space the project requires.
The number of staff and the necessary skill sets of staff members should appear here. This part of the plan must also establish the expected costs of physical resources, salaries and any workspace.
The risk sections must take into account any factor that may hinder or derail the project to allow risk management.
If changes in pending ordinances would increase the costs of a construction project, pointing it out in the risk section allows the company to seek exemption status in advance.
At a minimum, the project plan must include a project schedule that specifies milestones and an estimate of the duration of the project.
The plan can also establish detailed work requirements for major milestones, usually in a spreadsheet. The schedules should try to accommodate unforeseen events by building a time buffer.
The evaluation section establishes the criteria to determine the success of the project. This may include a basic checklist such as complying with the project schedule, staying below budget and submitting progress reports.
Returning to the computer hardware example, an evaluative measure could be that all updated computers can run a specific software package.
Types of Projects
(1) Manufacturing Projects:
Where the end result is a vehicle, ship, plane, a piece of machinery, etc.
(2) Construction projects:
Resulting in the construction of buildings, bridges, roads, tunnels, etc. Mining and petrochemical projects can be included in this group.
(3) Management Projects:
That include the organization or reorganization of work without necessarily producing a tangible result. Some examples would be the design and testing of a new software package, the relocation of a company’s headquarters or the production of a stage show.
(4) Research Projects:
In which the objectives can be difficult to establish, and where the results are unpredictable.
- Basically, everything you do with a fixed or objective end date can be considered project work.
- Shopping is a simple example that contains all project work disciplines to some extent:
- Planning, calendar, budget, completion date, achievement / goal.
More examples are:
- Painting a room
- Traveling somewhere or taking a day trip
- Prepare lunch or dinner
- Schedule an application
- Build a wooden bird house.
The purpose of project management is to minimize, contain or counteract the risks, and organize and direct resources so that the project ends on time, within budgeted costs and with the functional objectives or other design objectives met.
If the purpose of project management is to meet the functional, cost and time scale objectives, then clearly these objectives must be properly defined from the beginning.
The technical or performance specification generally originates from the requirements established by the customer. The scope and technical performance of the project must be in clear text, backed by the necessary drawings.
What is a Residential Project ?
Residential project means any project, or part thereof, that involves or is related to any planned or existing structure used, or intended to be used, in whole or in part, as a dwelling.
Including, but not limited to, condos, terraced houses, single-family homes, multi-family homes, including apartment buildings, coaches, mixed-use residential / commercial developments and / or planned unit developments.
Vehicle entrances, streets, sewers and water lines, garages, retaining walls, parking lots, fences, swimming pools, leveling lots, landscaping or other construction included in the plans
What is a Commercial Project ?
Means any project, including, among others, one or more buildings and other structures, improvements, machinery and equipment, whether or not they are in the same place or sites now existing or acquired in the future, suitable for use by any retail or wholesale company , distribution or agency.
Examples of Commercial Projects
The construction of shopping centers, corporate offices, etc. They are examples of commercial projects.
What is an Educational Project ?
A project in education is a collaborative process, which often involves different teachers and educational staff, which is carefully planned to achieve a particular learning objective.
Examples of Educational Projects
Shrinking bags of chips in the microwave. Students can learn about polymers through practical activities using some of their favorite products, such as shoes and sports equipment.
As a culminating activity, they can put a wrap of their favorite fries or chocolate bar in the microwave for five seconds to learn how polymers return to their natural state when exposed to heat.
Design an application. Students love using the newest applications and games, so take them to the next level by having them design theirs.
With Apple’s development tools, children can learn how to create an application or an online game. They can learn about technology and problem solving skills while engaging in what they love.
Student farm Students will learn lessons about science, social studies, mathematics and economics by planting their own organic farm.
They can start researching the crops they want, determine what kind of care is needed and then use a budget to determine what materials they should buy. They can even sell food from their farm to contribute to a cause or fundraiser.
What is a Construction Project ?
Most people outside the construction industry have only a vague understanding of what a construction project is and the underlying process through which construction projects are completed.
To fully understand what construction project managers are and what they do, it is important to get a complete picture of the construction projects as a whole.
When we say “project”, we are referring to a discrete action that has an initial point and an end point. Construction projects are, by their very nature, limited both temporally and spatially.
That is, construction projects are temporary. While the entities that help carry out a construction project are durable, work on the project itself only occurs for a limited period of time.
Examples of Construction Projects
Construction of a shopping center, a complex of buildings among others.